According to the theory of evolution, life began with the first cell, which itself emerged by chance or by some hypothetical natural laws of "self-organization." Again as a result of chance and natural laws, this living cell developed and evolved, and by taking on different forms gave rise to the millions of species of life on Earth.
It proposes the notion that human came into existence (this world) as the result of chance and emerged by itself from natural conditions that is made of material substance. It teaches that the only law in life is a selfish struggle for survival and to stay alive.
A Conceptual Overview
Darwin's Theory of Evolution held the notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers — all related. Darwin's general theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses a purely naturalistic (undirected) "descent with modification". That is, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors naturally over time. In a nutshell, as random genetic mutations occur within an organism's genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival — a process known as "natural selection." These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. Over time, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an entirely different organism (not just a variation of the original, but an entirely different creature).
Natural selection acts to preserve and accumulate minor advantageous genetic mutations. Suppose a member of a species developed a functional advantage (it grew wings and learned to fly). Its offspring would inherit that advantage and pass it on to their offspring. The inferior (disadvantaged) members of the same species would gradually die out, leaving only the superior (advantaged) members of the species. Natural selection is the preservation of a functional advantage that enables a species to compete better in the wild. Natural selection is the naturalistic equivalent to domestic breeding. Over the centuries, human breeders have produced dramatic changes in domestic animal populations by selecting individuals to breed. Breeders eliminate undesirable traits gradually over time. Similarly, natural selection eliminates inferior species gradually over time.
Speculative Nature of Darwin's Theory
Darwin's Theory of Evolution, as presented in his book "The Origin of Species" has been widely accepted as fact, although it is based on Darwin's fallible speculations. His critics write, "If the theory of natural selection of Darwin is correct, why can't we see the intermediate forms of species, the connecting links?" Darwin did not have the answer nor the archeological evidence to back it up. Although there is ample evidence for many species, fossil records provide almost no evidence for the intermediate connecting links. Later, scientists revised Darwin's theory with their "Punctuated Equilibrium" evolutionary theory, supposedly making evolution invisible in the fossil record. Yet this theory is not verifiable in any way and is highly speculative.
The increasing number of discoveries is producing results opposed to the theory of evolution, not in favour of it. If such an evolutionary process had happened in the past, there should be many traces of it, and each new discovery should further strengthen the theory. In fact, in The Origin of Species, Darwin claimed that science would develop in just that direction. In his view, the only problem facing his theory in the fossil record was a lack of fossil discoveries. He hoped that future research would unearth countless fossils to support his theory. However, subsequent scientific discoveries have actually proved Darwin's dreams to be totally unfounded.
The theory of evolution, which has been tried to be promoted everywhere as a scientific fact from the textbooks to the scientific publications for 150 years, is actually based on extremely unscientific foundations. The evolutionists gave up proving their theory, however, they began to search for ways to keep the theory alive through propaganda, demagogy and eyewash methods. Their aims are not to defend a scientific fact, but to try to keep the so-called scientific fallacy alive in the cause of continuing their materialistic and atheist world view.
Science cannot prove we're here by creation, but neither can science prove we're here by chance or macro-evolution. No one has observed either. They are both accepted on faith.
The theory of evolution was put forward as an imaginary hypothesis in the context of the primitive scientific understanding of the nineteenth century, and to this day it has not been backed up by any scientific discovery or experiment. Today, branches of science such as paleontology, genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology have proven that it is quite impossible for life to come about as a result of chance and to emerge by itself from natural conditions.
Some fundamental commence sense abnormalities that still remains unanswered by the evolutionist are as follows:
How do the complex structure of the Living Cell came into existence?
The living cell, is the most complex structure that mankind has so far encountered. Modern science has revealed that just one living cell has a much more complex structure and mutually interconnected complicated systems than a large city. Such a complex structure can only function if all its separate parts emerge at the same time and in full working order. Otherwise, it will serve no purpose, and will fall apart over time and disappear. We cannot expect that its parts developed by chance over millions of years as claimed by the theory of evolution.
Where are all the Half-Evolved species?
Millions of people are taught that the fossil record furnishes proof of evolution. But, where are there fossils of half-evolved dinosaurs or other creatures? The fossil record contains fossils of only complete and fully-formed species. There are no fossils of partially-evolved species to indicate that a gradual process of evolution ever occurred. Even among evolutionists there are diametrically different interpretations and reconstructions of the fossils used to support human evolution from a supposed ape-like ancestry.
Even if evolution takes millions and millions of years, we should still be able to see some stages of its process. But, we simply don't observe any partially-evolved fish, frogs, lizards, birds, dogs, cats among us. Every species of plant and animal is complete and fully-formed.
Among all the fossils discovered over the years, there is not one trace of the intermediate forms that would be necessary if living things were to have evolved stage by stage from simple species to more complex ones, as the theory of evolution claims. If such creatures had really existed, there would have been millions, even billions, of them. More importantly, the remains of these creatures should be present in the fossil record. If these intermediate forms had ever really existed, their numbers would be even greater than the number of animal species we know today, and everywhere the world should be full of their fossil remains.
The evidence from genetics supports only the possibility for horizontal evolution (i.e. varieties of dogs, cats, horses, cows, etc.) but not vertical evolution (i.e. from fish to human). Unless Nature has the ability to perform genetic engineering vertical evolution will not be possible.
How is it possible for the Half-Evolving species to survive?
Another problem is how could partially-evolved plant and animal species survive over millions of years when their basic organs and tissues were still in the process of evolving? How, for example, were animals breathing, eating, and reproducing if there respiratory, digestive, and reproductive organs were still evolving?
In fact, precisely because of this problem more and more modern evolutionists are adopting a new theory known as Punctuated Equilibrium which says that plant and animal species evolved suddenly from one kind to another and that is why we don't see evidence of partially-evolved species in the fossil record. Of course, we have to accept their word on blind faith because there is no way to prove or disprove what they are saying. These evolutionists claim that something like massive bombardment of radiation resulted in mega mutations in species which produced "instantaneous" changes from one life form to another.
How one explains the coding system in the DNA?
Another terrible dilemma from the point of view of evolution is the DNA molecule in the nucleus of the living cell, a coding system with 3.5 billion units containing all the details of life. DNA was first discovered using X-ray crystallography in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and is a giant molecule with a superb plan and design. For many years, Francis Crick, a Nobel-prize laureate, believed in the theory of molecular evolution, but eventually even he had to admit to himself that such a complex molecule could not have emerged spontaneously by chance, as the result of an evolutionary process:
An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that, in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle.
Homer Jacobson, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, makes the following admission regarding how impossible it is for life to have come about by chance:
Directions for the reproduction of plans, for energy and the extraction of parts from the current environment, for the growth sequence, and for the effector mechanism translating instructions into growth—all had to be simultaneously present at that moment [when life began]. This combination of events has seemed an incredibly unlikely happenstance…
Doesn't dinosaurs contradicts the "from simple to complex forms" concept?
As we know, Darwinism proposes that life developed from one single common ancestor, and took on all its varieties by a series of tiny changes. In that case, life should first have emerged in very similar and simple forms. And according to the same theory, the differentiation between, and growing complexity in, living things must have happened in parallel over time.
Evolutionists look for these intermediate forms in all the feverish fossil research that has been carried out since the nineteenth century. However, there has been no trace of these intermediate forms, despite all the eager searching for the last 150 years. The fossil record shows that living species were perfectly formed in its very origin, not by following a process from primitive forms to advanced ones as evolution claims. Evolutionists have tried very hard to find evidence for their theory or so, but have actually proved by their own hand that no evolutionary process could have been possible.
Phillip Johnson, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley who is also one of the world's foremost critics of Darwinism, describes the contradiction between this paleontological truth and Darwinism:
Darwinian theory predicts a "cone of increasing diversity," as the first living organism, or first animal species, gradually and continually diversified to create the higher levels of taxonomic order. The animal fossil record more resembles such a cone turned upside down, with the phyla present at the start and thereafter decreasing.
The theory of evolution maintains that the ancestors of birds were dinosaurs, members of the reptile family. The creatures that evolutionists claim to be the ancestors of birds. This in fact contradicts the very theory of evolution itself that promotes the concept that life forms begins or evolve from simple to complex forms.
Extreme human antiquity invalidates evolution
Fossil record shows that man goes back millions of years. These discoveries consist of skeletons and skulls, and the remains of people who lived at various times. The fossil record shows us that man came into existence millions of years ago in just the same form as he is now, and that he has come down to the present with absolutely no evolutionary development.
Existence of Intelligence in creation
Apart from a few very primitive attempts, man only managed to build machines capable of flying in the twentieth century. Birds have been doing something which man tried to do with the accumulated technology of hundreds of years right through the millions of years that they have existed. Moreover, a young bird can acquire this skill after only a few attempts. Many of their characteristics are so perfect that not even the products of the latest modern technology can compare with them.
How did flies' flight system, that is much more efficient than that of a helicopter, which is in turn modeled on them, come about? You will see that evolutionists have no answer.
Flawless design, unique systems, and an ordered balance
The universe with all its creations, both animate and inanimate, has a flawless design, unique systems, and an ordered balance that provide all the conditions necessary for living things to survive. Every planet in the universe, large and small, is the critically important part of a larger order. Not one of their positions in space or any of their movements is random. On the contrary, their countless details known to us so far have been created and especially adjusted for a particular purpose. Of all the innumerable factors influencing the balances in the universe, a change in the position of just one planet is enough to bring chaos. But these balances are never upset. The universe continues on, in its perfect order, with no problems.
Scientific coverup and knowledge filtration
Over the past two centuries researchers have found bones and artifacts showing that people like ourselves existed on earth millions of years ago. But the scientific establishment has ignored these remarkable facts because they contradict the dominant views of human origins and antiquity.
Conforming within the Linear and Progressive time view
The time concept of modern archeology, and modern anthropology in general, resembles the general cosmological-historical time concept of Europe's Judeo-Christian culture. Differing from the cyclical cosmological-historical time concepts of the Hindus, early Greeks in Europe, and the Mayans and others in Asia, the Judeo-Christian cosmological-historical time concept is linear and progressive. Modern archeology also shares with Judeo-Christian theology the idea that humans appear after the other major species.
Given the linear progressivist preconceptions of generations of archeologists and anthropologists, one could also predict that this mixture of bones and artifacts would be edited to conform to their deeply rooted linear-progressive time concepts. A careful study of the archeological record, and the history of archeology itself, broadly confirms these two predictions. Linear-progressivist time concepts thus pose a substantial barrier to truly objective evaluation of the archeological record and to rational theory-building in the area of human origins and antiquity.
Knowledge filtration to fit into the Evolution Theory
Over the past two centuries, archaeologists have found bones and artifacts showing that people like ourselves have existed on earth for millions of years. But many scientists have forgotten or ignored these remarkable facts. Why? Primarily because they contradict dominant views about human origins and antiquity. According to these views, humans like ourselves have existed for only about 100,000 years, and before that there were only more primitive human ancestors. This evolutionary paradigm, to which influential groups of scientists are deeply committed, has acted as a “knowledge filter.” And the filtering, intentional or not, has left us with a radically incomplete set of facts for building our ideas about human origins.
In the late twentieth century, finds that could be taken as evidence for extreme human antiquity continue to be made. But archeologists often interpret them to fit within the now generally accepted scheme of human evolution. It is therefore possible that commitment to a particular evolutionary scheme has resulted in a process of knowledge filtration, whereby a large set of archeological evidence has dropped below the horizon of cognition. We have thus come to accept a picture of prehistory that is largely incorrect.
Hindu response to Darwinian Evolution
The Hindu worldview, do not advocate the concept of evolution or creationism as it is been understood today by the evolutionist and creationist respectively. Generally, creation is the act or result of bringing something into existence from nothing at all. In Christian theology, Creation is God's act of bringing the universe into existence from nothing. Creationism is the belief that the natural universe, life, and humanity was created by a supreme being's supernatural intervention.
According to Hindu view, the universe (or multiverse) never came to be at some particular point, but always has been, always will be, but is perpetually in flux. Space and time are of cyclical nature. This universe is simply the current one, which is influx and constantly changing, when it finally ceases to manifest, a new one will arise.
Shristi (the creative process) begins, when Purusha, the individual Self enters and becomes established in it. Out of this process evolve 24 principles, which are:
- mahat: the great principle (1)
- buddhii: the discriminating, reasoning and causative intelligence (2)
- ahamkara: the ego-principle (3)
- manas: the mind or the sixth sense (4)
- panchendiryas: the five sense organs (9)
- Five karmendriyas: the five organs of action (14
- Five tanmantras: the five subtle elements (19)
- Five mahabhutas: the five gross elements (earth, water, air, fire and ether)(24)
These are the evolutes. The Mahat (the Great One), is the first to emerge in this process of evolution. The Mahat is Prakriti or the primordial nature in its dynamic aspect. From the Mahat evolves buddhi and Manas. Buddhi is the principle of intelligence or the discriminating awareness and Manas is the mind stuff consisting of pure consciousness. From Buddhi evolve ahmkara or the feeling of individuality and separation and the five tanmantras of sound, touch smell, form or color and taste.
The rest of the principles arise from from Manas, which are the five senses, the five organs of actions and the five gross elements. These are the 24 evolutes and together with the Purusha (individual soul) who joins with Prakriti to initiate this process, the number becomes 25.
Our True Self is Atman and not the Body or Mind
Darwin and his followers were solely concerned with the evolution of physical forms and structures, whereas in the Hindu thought, it sees evolution from the standpoint of the atman (True Self). The Hindu view is, human beings are composed not just of one thing, matter, but of three things, stula (matter), manas (mind), and atman (spirit). The atman is said to be shrouded by panchakosha (five sheaths) respectively. The first sheath is called the annamaya or one made of food, the next one pranamaya or made of breath, then the manomaya or made of mind, followed by vignyanamaya or discriminative intelligence and finally a sheath of eternal happiness, ananda or Bliss.
Repeating time cycles
In essence, the Hindu doctrine of cosmic cycles conceives a qualitative, "circular" time that cyclically affects our universe and everything in it. A universe that on its part is eternal, without beginning or end, and which manifests itself, together with other billions of universes, from a state of development to another of equilibrium, and then to another of decadence, after which there occurs its dissolution - or pralaya - and back to start again, forever. A universe, in sum, governed by recurrence, in which, from manifestation to pralaya, there flow in countless numbers the immensely vast Brahma's days, or kalpas, preceded by their corresponding nights; and where within each kalpa there follow, one another, one thousand "human cycles" or mahayugas.
During this entire time, according to the Puranic accounts, humans coexisted with creatures in some ways resembling the earlier toolmaking hominids of modern evolutionary accounts. The strata of the earth, extending back hundreds of millions of years, should yield a bewildering mixture of hominid bones, some anatomically modern human and some not, as well as a similarly bewildering variety of artifacts, some displaying a high level of artistry and others not. Humans appeared quite early on in creation and have been on earth for a very long time.
- There is No Genetic Mechanism for Darwinian Evolution, The Missing Genetic Mechanism for Adding a Gene
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