English Words of Sanskrit Origin

Root of English words from Sanskrit illustrated using root-words and words in their purer forms. There will be no need to demonstrate every inflected form of a word.

Note: In Sanskrit and classical Latin, v is sometimes pronounced as w, while the opposite is true in German. In Slavic languages, both letters are interchangeable. D's and T's are interchangeable. Similarly, at times, B=P=F=V.

A

a-, an- (prefix)
Skt. a — "not, without"
ardent, arson
Eng. ardent — "strongly emotional about"; L. ardere/arsi — "be violently enraged, passionate / (countries), be in turmoil, at war"; Skt. ard — "make agitated, torment, kill";
aryan
Skt. ārya — "noble one, respected one";
avatar
Eng. avatar; Skt. avatara — "incarnations or descent" (of a deity to the earth in incarnate form)

B

band, bandage
Skt. bandh — "bind around"
barber, barbarian
Skt. barbara — "barbarian, one with long hair"
bear, birth, infer
L. ferre — "bear"; Old Irish brita — "birth"; Skt. bhri — "to bear, carry away, endure"
brother, brotherhood
L. frater; Skt. bhraathra — "brother, fraternity"

C

candle, chandelier, incendiary, incandescent, incensed
L. candere — "shine, be hot", incendere/incensum — "burn, inflame emotions"; Skt. chand — "shine, be bright"
car, chariot, carry
Skt. chakra — "wheel", car — "go, move, travel through", carya — "driving in a carriage"
cent, century, centime
L. centum; Skt. shatam — "hundred"
conner, -gon
Eng. -gon, as in octagon, polygon — "figures which have corners and angles"; Gr. gonos/gonon, "-angled"; Skt. kona — "corner, angle, intermediate point of a compass"
cheetah
Eng. — "leopard"; Hin. chita; Skt. chitraka — "to be speckled"
cow
Old Saxon co; Low German ko; Skt. go — "cow"
create
L. creare/creatum — "bring about something"; Skt. kri — "make, accomplish, cause, effect, bring to completion"

D

decade, decagon, decimal, december
Gr. deka; Skt. dasha — "ten"
diamond
Fr. diamant, L. adamantem — "the hardest metal," later, "diamond"; Skt. adaman — "unyielding"
door
Skt. dur — "door"

E

equal
L. aequus — "that which is the same"; Skt. eka — "the same, equal"

F

G

geometry
Skt. gy — "earth", miti — "parametre"

H

harry, harass
Eng. harry — "plunder; devastation", harass; Skt. hara — "destroying", haarya — "be robbed"
heart
Skt. harda — "heart"

I

J

jungle
Skt. jangala — "any wild or uncultivated land"

K

L

M

mind, mental, mint
L. mens, mentis — "think"; Skt. manas — "mind"
mantra
Skt. mantra — "incantation, song, a repeated word"
man
Skt. manu — "the father of mankind"
measure, meter, metric
L. metiri/mensus — "measure"; Skt. maa — "measure, compare", maatra — "measure"
mouse
Skt. mus — "rat or mouse"

N

navy, navigate, nautical
Skt. nau — "ship", navya
nine, november, novena
Eng. november — "the ninth month of a previous calendar", novena — "a nine-day devotional with prayers"; Skt. ava — "nine", navan
novelty, novice, innovate, renovate
Gr. neos; L. novus; Italy neos; Skt. nava — "new"

O

octet, octopus
L. octo; Ger. acht; Skt. asta — "eight"
octagon
L. octo; Ger. acht; Skt. asta — "eight", kona — "corner, angle, intermediate point of a compass"

P

penta, pentagon
Eng. pentagon — "five-sided figure"; Gr. penta — "five" Skt. pancha — "five", kon — "angle"
pepper
L. piperi; Skt. pippali — "a long pepper"
peri- (prefix)
Skt. pari (prefix) — "about, near"
path
Skt. patha — "path"
pre- (prefix)
Skt. pra (prefix) — "before, in front of"

Q

quarter, quaternary, quadrate
Eng. quattor (quarter — "a fourth", quaternary — "in fours", quadrate — "four-sided"); Skt. catur — "four"

R

S

sadhu
Skt. sādhu — "well and good"
salon, saloon
Fr. salle — "saloon" Skt. shaalaa (prefix) — "large room"
samadhi
Skt. samadhi — "putting together"
sambal
Mal. sambal — ""; Tam. sambal — ""; Skt. sambhārei — ""
sambar
Skt. śambarah — "a kind of Asian deer"
same
Skt. sama — "same"
samsara
Skt. samsAra — "passing through"
sandal
Skt. candanam — "sandalwood"
sandhi
Skt. samdhih — "a wide variety of phonological processes"
sangha
Skt. sangha — "a community of monks and nuns"
sanskrit
Skt. samskrtam — "put together, well-formed"
sapphire
L. sapphirus; Gr. sappheiros; Skt. sanipriya — ""
sari
Hin. sari; Pkt. sadi; Skt. sati — "garment"
satyagraha
Skt. satyagraha — "insisting on truth"
sattva
Skt. sattvah — "truth"
septe-
Eng. september — "month of seven", septennial — "every seven years"; Skt. saptan — "seven"
shampoo
Hin. champo; Skt. capayati — "kneads"
sine
L. sinus - "a bay or a cove"; Ar. jiba - "a bay or a cove"; Skt. jya
some
Skt. sama — "any, every"
smile
Skt. smi — "smile"
stupa
Skt. stūpah — "crown of the head"
sudra
Skt. śūdrah — ""
sugar, saccharin, sucrose
Mid. L. succarum; Ar. sukkar; Pr. shakar; Skt. sharkara — "ground or candied sugar"
sulfur
L. sulfur; Skt. sulvari — ""
sutra
Skt. sutram — "a rule"
swastika
Skt. svastika — "one associated with well-being, a lucky charm"

T

that
Skt. tat — "that"
thou, thee
L. tu/te/tua; Fr. toi; Skt. tva — "you"
three, triple
Skt. tri — "three"
trigonometry
Skt. tri — "three", kona — "corner, angle, intermediate point of a compass", miti — "parametre"

U

V

W

X

Y

yoga
Skt. yoga — "yoke, union"
yogi
Skt. yogi — "one who practices yoga or ascetic"
yoke, join
Skt. yuj — "yoke, join, bind"
young, juvenile
Skt. yu — "young", yuvan — "young"

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